张慧营, 田孟洋, 姚宇腾, 乔宁, 刘银占, 苗原. 不同频次氮素添加对大豆农田生态系统土壤线虫的影响[J]. 生态与农村环境学报, 2024, 40(5): 672-682. DOI: 10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2023.0456
    引用本文: 张慧营, 田孟洋, 姚宇腾, 乔宁, 刘银占, 苗原. 不同频次氮素添加对大豆农田生态系统土壤线虫的影响[J]. 生态与农村环境学报, 2024, 40(5): 672-682. DOI: 10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2023.0456
    ZHANG Hui-ying, TIAN Meng-yang, YAO Yu-teng, QIAO Ning, LIU Yin-zhan, MIAO Yuan. Effects of Nitrogen Addition Frequency on Soil Nematodes in a Soybean Cropland[J]. Journal of Ecology and Rural Environment, 2024, 40(5): 672-682. DOI: 10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2023.0456
    Citation: ZHANG Hui-ying, TIAN Meng-yang, YAO Yu-teng, QIAO Ning, LIU Yin-zhan, MIAO Yuan. Effects of Nitrogen Addition Frequency on Soil Nematodes in a Soybean Cropland[J]. Journal of Ecology and Rural Environment, 2024, 40(5): 672-682. DOI: 10.19741/j.issn.1673-4831.2023.0456

    不同频次氮素添加对大豆农田生态系统土壤线虫的影响

    Effects of Nitrogen Addition Frequency on Soil Nematodes in a Soybean Cropland

    • 摘要: 土壤线虫在维持陆地生态系统的稳定性、促进物质循环和能量流动方面起着重要作用。而氮肥的添加是影响农田土壤线虫的重要因素, 农田施肥是增加农作物产量和提高经济效益的有效措施。然而以往研究大多关注氮肥添加量对土壤线虫的影响, 对于氮添加频次对农田生态系统土壤线虫群落影响的认识不足。以农田生态系统大豆作物为研究对象, 设置对照(C)、低频施氮(NL)和高频施氮(NH)3种处理, 研究土壤线虫群落对不同频次氮添加的响应, 分析不同频次氮添加对农田土壤线虫群落结构的影响及其机制, 从而为农田生态系统管理提供基础数据和科学依据。结果表明: (1)施氮处理后, 土壤线虫物种丰富度和密度无显著变化。在0~10 cm土层, 低频施氮使食真菌线虫相对丰度显著提升197.33 %, 植食性线虫相对丰度显著降低64.51 %; 高频施氮使食细菌线虫相对丰度显著升高26.49 %, 植食性线虫相对丰度显著降低47.13 %(P < 0.05)。(2)在0~10 cm土层, 低频施氮显著提高cp-1类群比例, 并显著降低cp-3类群比例; 高频施氮使cp-1类群比例显著升高(P < 0.05)(cp-1表示cp值为1的线虫类群)。(3)低频施氮使0~10 cm土层线虫通道比值显著降低, >10~20 cm土层线虫群落基础指数显著升高, 0~10和>10~20 cm土层线虫群落结构指数显著降低(P < 0.05)。在0~10 cm土层, 低频和高频施氮使线虫群落富集指数显著上升(P < 0.05)。(4)冗余分析表明, 铵态氮含量、含水率和硝态氮含量是驱动土壤线虫群落变化的主要环境因子。总的来说, 施氮会改变土壤环境和线虫营养类群结构。施氮可使偏r对策者cp-1类群数量显著增加, 加快土壤线虫类群的世代交替和能量流动, 降低土壤生态群落稳定性。低频施氮显著降低线虫通道比值, 这表明土壤分解路径中的真菌分解路径得到增强。

       

      Abstract: Soil nematodes play an essential role in maintaining the stability of terrestrial ecosystems and promoting substance recycling and energy flow. The application of nitrogen fertilizer is an essential factor affecting soil nematodes in farmland, though it is an effective method to increase crop yield and improve economic benefits. However, previous studies have mostly focused on the impact of nitrogen fertilizer addition on soil nematodes, there is still a lack of knowledge about the effects of frequency of nitrogen addition on soil nematode communities in farmland ecosystems. Soybean crops in farmland ecosystem were selected as the research object, three treatments including control (C), low-frequency nitrogen application (NL), and high-frequency nitrogen application (NH) were set up to study the response of soil nematode communities to different frequency nitrogen additions, and to analyze the response mechanism of soil nematode community structure to different frequency nitrogen addition in farmland, providing basic data and scientific basis for farmland ecosystem management. The results show that: (1) After nitrogen application, there was no significant change in the species richness and density of soil nematodes. In the 0-10 cm soil layer, low-frequency nitrogen application significantly increased the relative abundance of fungivores by 197.33 %, while the relative abundance of plant-parasites decreased by 64.51 %. High-frequency nitrogen application significantly increased the relative abundance of bacterivores by 26.49 %, while the relative abundance of plant-parasites decreased by 47.13 % (P < 0.05). (2) In the 0-10 cm soil layer, low-frequency nitrogen application significantly increased the proportion of cp-1 taxa and significantly decreased the proportion of cp-3 taxa. High-frequency nitrogen application significantly increased the proportion of cp-1 taxa (P < 0.05) (cp-1 represents a nematode community with a cp value of 1). (3) Low-frequency nitrogen application significantly decreased the nematode channel ratio of 0-10 cm soil layer, significantly increased the basal index of nematode communities in soil layers >10-20 cm, and significantly decreased the structural index of nematode communities in soil layers 0-10 and >10-20 cm (P < 0.05). In the 0-10 cm soil layer, the enrichment index of nematode communities was significantly increased by low- and high-frequency nitrogen application (P < 0.05). (4) Redundancy analysis (RDA) show that ammonium nitrogen, moisture content and nitrate nitrogen are the main environmental factors which drive the change of soil nematode community. Overall, nitrogen application changed the soil environment and the structure of nematode trophic taxa. Nitrogen application significantly increased the number of cp-1 taxa which were r-strategists, accelerated the generational alternation and energy flow of soil nematode communities, and reduced the stability of soil ecological communities. Low-frequency nitrogen application significantly decreased the nematode channel ratio, indicating that the fungal decomposition path in the soil decomposition path was enhanced.

       

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